Constitution of the
Republic of Moldova
Contacts

Title I. General principles


Article 1. The State of the Republic of Moldova

(1) The Republic of Moldova is a sovereign, independent, unitary and indivisible state.

(2) The form of government of the State is the republic.

(3) Governed by the rule of law, the Republic of Moldova is a democratic State in which the dignity of people, their rights and freedoms, the free development of human personality, justice and political pluralism represent su­preme values that shall be guaranteed.


Article 2. Sovereignty and State Power

(1) National sovereignty resides with the people of the Republic of Moldova, who shall exercise it directly and through its representa­tive bodies in the ways provided for by Con­stitution.

(2) No private individual, no national seg­ment of population, no social group, no po­litical party or other public organization may exercise state power on their own behalf. The usurpation of state power shall constitute the gravest crime against people.


Article 3. Territory

(1) The territory of the Republic of Moldova is inalienable.

(2) The borders of the country are sanctioned by an organic law, subject to the unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.


Article 4. Human Rights and Freedoms

(1) Constitutional provisions on human rights and freedoms shall be interpreted and are enforced in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, with the con­ventions and other treaties to which the Re­public of Moldova is a party.

(2) Wherever disagreements appear between the conventions and treaties on fundamental human rights to which the Republic of Mol­dova is a party and its domestic laws, priority shall be given to international regulations.


Article 5. Democracy and Political Pluralism

(1) Democracy in the Republic of Moldova shall be exercised under the conditions of po­litical pluralism, which is incompatible with dictatorship or totalitarianism.

(2) No ideology may be instituted as official ideology of the State.


Article 6. Separation and Cooperation of Powers

The legislative, the executive and the judicial powers are separate and cooperate in the exercise of the assigned prerogatives pursuant to the provisions of the Constitution.


Article 7. Constitution -the Supreme Law

The Constitution of the Republic of Moldova shall be the Supreme Law of the State. No law or other legal act which contravenes the provi­sions of the Constitution shall have legal force.


Article 8. Observance of International Law and International Treaties

(1) The Republic of Moldova commits to observe the Charter of the United Nations and the treaties to which it is a party, to ground its relationships with other states on the unanimously recognized principles and norms of international law.

(2) The coming into force of an international treaty containing provisions which are contrary to the Constitution shall be preceded by a revision of the latter.


Article 9. Fundamental Principles Regarding Property

(1) Property can be public and private. It is constituted of material and intellectual goods.

(2) No property may be used to the prejudice of human rights, freedoms and human dignity.

(3) Market, free economic initiative and fair competition shall be the main elements of the economy.


Article 10. Unity of People and Right to National Identity

(1) The unity of people of the Republic of Moldova constitutes the foundation of the State. The Republic of Moldova is the common and indivisible motherland of all its citizens.

(2) The State recognises and guarantees all its citizens the right to the preservation, development and expression of their ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious identity.


Article 11. The Republic of Moldova -a Neutral State

(1) The Republic of Moldova proclaims its permanent neutrality.

(2) The Republic of Moldova does not admit the stationing of any foreign military troops on its territory.


Article 12. Symbols of the State

(1) The Republic of Moldova has a flag, coat of arms and anthem.

(2) The State Flag of the Republic of Moldova is a tricolour. The colours are arranged vertically in the following order from the flagpole: blue, yellow and red. On the central yellow stripe of the tricolour is imprinted the State Coat of Arms of the Republic of Moldova.

(3) The State Coat of Arms of the Republic of Moldova shall consist of a shield divided horizontally into two parts: the upper part is coloured red and the lower part is coloured blue; with a superimposed a head of aurochs showing between its horns an eight-pointed star. The head of aurochs is flanked on the right side by a rose with five petals and on the left side by a slightly rotated half moon. All heraldic elements on the shield are of gold­en (yellow) colour. The shield is laid on the breast of a natural eagle holding in its beak a golden cross, in its right claw a green olive-tree branch and in its left claw a golden sceptre.

(4) The State anthem of the Republic of Mol­dova is established by organic law.

(5) The flag, coat of arms and anthem are the State symbols of the Republic of Moldova and are protected by law as such.


Article 13. State Language, Use of Other Languages

(1) The State language of the Republic of Moldova is the Moldovan language based on the Latin alphabet.

(2) The State shall acknowledge and protect the right to the preservation, development and use of the Russian language and other languages spoken within the territory of the State.

(3) The State will encourage and promote studies of foreign languages that enjoy wide­spread international usage.

(4) The use of languages within the terri-tory of the Republic of Moldova shall be estab­lished by organic law.


Article 14. The Capital

The capital of the Republic of Moldova is the city of Chișinău.